Egyptian Astronomy: 2. The Causeways of the Pyramids

800px-giza_pyramid_complex_map-svg[Map of Egyptian Monuments by MesserWoland, Wikipedia]

Causeways and their Orientations

Causeways, now much in ruins, were once covered walkways leading from the east to the temples of the pyramids. They were beautifully decorated with star patterns. We found them to be of interest and possible relevance to the Kanayama Calendar because of their orientations.

From northernmost pyramid, the three pyramid causeways point in the following directions. See Fig. 61.

Khufu’s:  14 degrees north of east

Khafre’s:  14 degrees south of east

Menkaure’s:  due east

What is the significance of these orientations?

Causeways and Cross-quarters

At the 30 degrees north latitude of Giza, the summer solstice direction is 28 degrees north of east, while the winter solstice direction is 28 degrees south of east. The 14 degree alignments means that the causeways point in directions of the summer and winter cross-quarters of the sun’s path. See Fig. 65 and


Cross-quarter Solar Observations?

Were the Egyptian causeways used for making solar observations on cross-quarter dates? We seriously doubt it. The ancient Egyptians used their knowledge of astronomy and built the causeways along with the other monuments. Then they covered the causeways with ceilings for those walking those corridors. Those ceilings would not allow the use of causeways for solar observations.

Winter Causeway

Yet, the causeways symbolized the directions to important astronomical phenomena at the time of Zep Tepi. The winter causeway of Khafre points to the sun rising at the breast of Leo, while the view of Leo matches the head and shoulders of the Sphinx. Again, the sky is imaged on the earth. See Fig. 66.

Summer Causeway

What of the other causeway? The authors of The Message of the Sphinx do not comment on its astronomical nor ritual meaning. However, the figures in the book show that this is the direction to the Virgo constellation at The First Time. Virgo may be the symbol of Isis, consort of Osiris. The reason that the causeways can point to two adjacent constellations (usually 30 degrees apart) is that the solstitial directions are nearly 30 degrees (actually 28 degrees). The two cross-quarter directions are separated by nearly 30 degrees and point to Leo and Virgo.

The Great Year

The ancient Egyptians were familiar with the Great Year of 25,920 years due to the precession of the axis of the earth. Their Zep Tepi occured half a Great Year ago from our own time, around 10,500 BCE.  See Fig. 74. The Sphinx and then the Giza pyramids were constructed in a magnificent plan to commemorate Zep Tepi. They form one of the most splendid monuments on earth. No doubt elaborate ceremonies honored the First Time and the connection between sky and earth for vast periods of time.

Orion is now nearly at the “top” of its great cycle. Is it not fitting that these discoveries are being made half a Great Cycle after the First Time of Zep Tepi?

Concluding Remarks about Egyptian and Kanayama Monuments

The Egyptian monuments are an intricate systems design. So are the Kanayama Megaliths, with their three coordinated sites and dozens of observations which together produce the super-accurate Kanayama Solar Calendar. These two systems have different purposes, yet both are remarkable achievements of the human consciousness that conceived and executed the plans.



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