In the previous post, we described the practice of Hidaki ひだき in the Hida area of Nyuukawa 丹生川. There used to be many Hidakinomiya日抱宮 shrines in Jomon times; now there are just a handful and they are hard to identify and to find. We visited the Shiroi Hidaki Jinja日抱神社 (岐阜県高山市丹生川町) a few years ago. This year, we sought to find others. For this series of posts on Hidakinomiya shrines in Nyuukawa, you may like to refer to our earlier six-part series of which the first is this link.
Poster of Norikuradake Mountain Range
Hidakinomiya 日抱宮 were sacred places with a pond around which people would sit and meditate on the reflection of the sun. It was a simple act of nature practice of calming the soul and connecting with sun and sky. Mt. Norikuradake 乗鞍岳 was considered the goshintai sacred vessel of the kami nature spirits. Ryoumen Sukuna was a Jomon of the fourth century who practiced Hidaki in Nyuukawa and at Mt. Norikuradake. Most of the Hidakinomiya lie near Route 158.
Hidakinomiya 日抱宮 along Route 158
Norikura Jinja 乗鞍神社
There is an okumiya on top of Norikuradake, called Norikura Honguu Okumiya 乗鞍本宮奧宮. However, Norikura Jinja is the shrine down below. We thought it would be easy to find, but no. A blogsite said that there would be a seki-dan, a stone kaidan. We went back and forth three times. There was a small cemetery where dark pink dahlias and white flowers were blooming amongst the headstones. The kaidan, when found, was covered with vegetation (photo left). We took an unmarked boggy path up to the shrine. We still had to climb up the upper half of the kaidan. Here it is, looking down.
The jinja is in a forest. Here is the haiden nestled next to an old sacred ichii scepter tree. The gosaishin enshrined kami are Norikura O-kami and Itakiso O-kami. Norikura O-kami is the spirit of Mt. Norikuradake. Itakiso-kami will be explained below. The chigi crossbars on the roof of the prayer hall is cut vertically in the male fashion. The shrine faces in the direction of the winter solstice sunset, which is very significant. This was a preferred direction of the Jomon.
Amaterasu Koutai Jinguu 天照皇大神宮、伊太祁曽宮
The keidai grounds of this shrine are surprisingly down from street level. After we parked the car, we could see a white torii below. Possibly, before the street was put in, the worshippers came from the valley below. The torii is pure white and stands out against the wooden building in the dark copse of trees. A stream flows below thegrounds. We could see a taki waterfall, the source of the stream. (The taki, shown below, is barely visible in the center of the upper left photo.) The chigi is male-cut, for Isotaki no kami. There is a shrine to Amaterasu inside the haiden prayer hall, and the outside sign reads Amaterasu Koutai Jinguu. A Jinguu is supposed to be grander than an ordinary jinja, and koutai means imperial. This is probably the earlier name of the shrine. It is also called Itakisou Miya. Isotaki kami was a later addition, as we will explain.
From Hidakinomiya to Itakisou Shrines
Hidakinomiya are very ancient places of meditation from the early days of Hida. How early? Possibly ten thousand years ago when Hida was being settled by the indigenous Jomon. As we saw in the story of Ryoumen Sukuna, the people of Hida had a peaceful culture in the mountains and valleys where food was abundant and life was good.
Later, this peaceful life ended when newcomers arrived from the Asian mainland and gained social and political power in Nara and Kyoto. An imperial court system was established, kanji writing replaced Woshite, and indigenous people were considered an inferior class. The court expanded its power over the archipelago, and reached its arm to take over Hida. Even though the people under Ryoumen Sukuna resisted, they were overcome by imperial forces. Hidakinomiya began to disappear and a new kami from the Kii region replaced the old ones.
Many of the Hidakinomiya were renamed Itakisou jinja. Hidaki and Itaki sound alike, don’t they? No doubt, that’s where “Itaki” came from. And a new kami was introduced called Isotaki. We note that this name is a re-arrangement of “Itaki-sou.” Isotaki no kami was brought to Hida from Kii and named as the enshrined kami in many of the Itakisou jinja, including the two Hidakinomiya that we visited. Isotaki is said to foster the growth of trees and cultivation of paddy crops. Interestingly, when we mentioned this name, people in Hida Kanayama had never heard of him.
We found and visited two more Hidakinomiya shrines in Nyuukawa. To think that they have existed for two thousand years is awesome. Yet, it is sad that their original Nature spirituality as Hidaki places of honoring the Sun has been hidden.
2018.01.08 Links added.