Tag Archives: sunset

Summer Solstice 2018

June212018by KS

Kazuo Sugisaka made this report on this year’s summer solstice at Kanayama Megaliths. He arrived there a day early, June 20, and it was rainy all day. The next day, summer solstice day, it was cloudy during the morning and it seemed doubtful that the sun would come out. Fortunately, it turned sunny during the afternoon, and by sunset the sun could be seen sinking between two megaliths at Senkoku-ishi site. Summer solstice is a marker date on the Kanayama Solar Calendar. It marks the beginning of the 60-day late summer period.

Last year, we noticed a rather unusual flower blooming amongst the megaliths. This year, Sugisaka-san took this photo. It was identified as Cyrtosia septentrionalis, called tuchiakebi in Japanese. It is a member of the Orchidaceae family.

cyrtosia orchid by KS





Winter Solstice Sunlight at Simulator and the Split Boulder

We conclude our three-part series reporting on the Kanayama Megaliths blog about the winter solstice. In the early afternoon of the solstice, the simulator is displaying perfectly the path of the sunlight. The spot of light strikes the observation panel precisely, which glows as if lit from within.

The winter sunset is also observable near the Senkoku-ishi. There is a pair of megaliths that clearly has been naturally divided in two. First take a look at the set-up. The sun is already striking the pair.



If you stand in back of the gap at sunset, you can gaze on this striking  sight!


The reason that all these winter observations are possible in the mountainous terrain of the Kanayama Megaliths is that the megalith sites are intelligently located so as to take advantage of the astronomical geometry, i.e., the line to the winter solstice setting sun. Moreover, isn’t this a magnificent view of the place where the sun goes to rest in winter?





Sun Shines into Iwaya-Iwakage on Winter Solstice Day


This is the second part of our three-part series on the winter solstice post from the Kanayama Megaliths blog site.

By 10:15, the group is down to the lower site. The sun is just rising over the mountain. It starts to bathe the central megalith of Iwaya-Iwakage which is on the highest ground.

The sunlight enters the chamber of Iwaya-Iwakage. The slant angle is just right for the face of the central megalith. Iwaya-Iwakage is where observations are made during the winter season from 60 days before the solstice to 60 days after.

Winter sunset can be observed here. The observation post is at the right foot of the long grooved megalith on the left side as you enter the chamber. This is just one boulder, not two. A deep groove has been carved so that the observer can see the setting sun. Note how the sunlight just barely skims the flank of the boulder. This delicate and dramatic spectacle can only be seen at solstice time. From the observation post, the sun is seen as it sets in the south west.



Next, we will visit the lower site of the simulator and the Senkoku-ishi area.






Winter Solstice 2017 Photos


Chika-san has sent us two photos taken this winter solstice in Kanayama. The first is the megalith that views the sunrise. Fortunately the weather was good, even though there was snow on the ground from the earlier snowfall, and the group could climb Higashinoyama.

The other photo shows the split megaliths of the Senkoku group. The winter setting sun shines right through the crack, making a splendid sight.







Nichirin (Hinowa) Jinja 

DSC04388 Nichirin yama

Nichirin (Hinowa) Jinja      日輪神社  にちりん(ひのわ)じんじゃ

This ancient shrine of Hida is on a small yama or a steep hill in Nyuukawa, near Hidakinomiya shrines, although it is not one of them. Its origin is unknown. Some say it is a pyramid mountain. We’re inclined to this possibility, as perhaps our photos will show. Its height is 728m. It is right off Route 158. You can’t miss it. What you’ll see is a conical hill covered with trees, and a kaidan going straight up. The kaidan turns into a tree-root kaidan, and it is a long climb up to the keidai  shrine grounds. The keidai is not at the top of the yama, but near the top. There is a flat area for the haiden prayer hall, honden behind it, and other buildings.

DSC04401 Nichirin haidenDSC04418 Hinowa no Miya

This is said to be a pyramid yama power spot. 16 pyramid yama surround Norikuradake, and megaliths and pyramids radiate from Nichirin. It may be a pyramid because of its conical shape, steep sides. See photos. There is a sazare-ishi, a boulder formed from pebbles and a symbol of unity, one out of many.


Nichirin にちりん is the onyomi Sino-Japanese reading of 日輪.  Hinowa ひのわ is kunyomi, the original Japanese. Hi ひ, of course, is Sun. The other kanji means wheel or circle, and is read wa わ. Thus, hinowa is very meaningful in this sun-oriented culture. The word, hinowa, has ancient origins. It is found in the Hotsuma Tsutae:  

ame tuti no      hirakeru toki no

hi to iki ga:      me wo to wakarete

wo ha ame ni,      me ha tuti to naru.

wo no utuho      kase umi, kase mo

ho to wakare.      uwose no mune ha

hi no wa naru.      i me no minamoto

tuki to naru.      tuti ha hani mitu;

katu hani ha      yama sato to naru.

This beautiful verse is speaking of the beginning of sky and earth. In particular, it states that the breath of the great uwose (male) energy becomes Hinowa, Sun, while the essence of ime (female) becomes earth.

The goshintai sacred body of this shrine is the mountain itself, and the gosaishin enshrined kami is Amaterasu, kami of Sun. The haiden and the kaidan face the general west direction of the summer setting sun, around 300 degrees. This means that the worshipper will be facing east. The origins of the Hinowa Shrine are very ancient. Perhaps people gathered here even before Shinto began and the kami Amaterasu was introduced. We can imagine that there may have been winter solstice sunrise ceremonies, now lost to us.

This place feels very mysterious. When in front of the haiden, we are are in deep shadow of sugi trees. The grounds are not large, and so we feel enclosed with the circle of trees, with the sides of the yama falling steeply downward. With the sun setting near the kaidan, we feel that this is a strange time when it is neither day nor evening, but kataware-doki, as they say in the Hida dialect for twilight. when all things are possible.





Hidakinomiya Shrines: Norikura Jinja and Amaterasu Koutai Jingu

DSC04326 Norikura J


In the previous post, we described the practice of Hidaki ひだき in the Hida area of Nyuukawa 丹生川. There used to be many Hidakinomiya日抱宮 shrines in Jomon times; now there are just a handful and they are hard to identify and to find. We visited the Shiroi Hidaki Jinja日抱神社 (岐阜県高山市丹生川町) a few years ago. This year, we sought to find others. For this series of posts on Hidakinomiya shrines in Nyuukawa, you may like to refer to our earlier six-part series of which the first is this link. 


Poster of Norikuradake Mountain Range

Hidakinomiya 日抱宮 were sacred places with a pond around which people would sit and meditate on the reflection of the sun. It was a simple act of nature practice of calming the soul and connecting with sun and sky. Mt. Norikuradake 乗鞍岳 was considered the goshintai sacred vessel of the kami nature spirits. Ryoumen Sukuna was a Jomon of the fourth century who practiced Hidaki in Nyuukawa and at Mt. Norikuradake. Most of the Hidakinomiya lie near Route 158.


Hidakinomiya 日抱宮 along Route 158


Norikura Jinja 乗鞍神社

DSC04348 Norikura haiden

There is an okumiya on top of Norikuradake, called Norikura Honguu Okumiya 乗鞍本宮奧宮. However, Norikura Jinja is the shrine down below. We thought it would be easy to find, but no. A blogsite said that there would be a seki-dan, a stone kaidan. We went back and forth three times. There was a small cemetery where dark pink dahlias and white flowers were blooming amongst the headstones. The kaidan, when found, was covered with vegetation (photo left). We took an unmarked boggy path up to the shrine. We still had to climb up the upper half of the kaidan. Here it is, looking down.

DSC04356 Ichii-no-ki

The jinja is in a forest. Here is the haiden nestled next to an old sacred ichii scepter tree. The gosaishin enshrined kami are Norikura O-kami and Itakiso O-kami. Norikura O-kami is the spirit of Mt. Norikuradake. Itakiso-kami will be explained below. The chigi crossbars on the roof of the prayer hall is cut vertically in the male fashion. The shrine faces in the direction of the winter solstice sunset, which is very significant. This was a preferred direction of the Jomon.


Amaterasu Koutai Jinguu 天照皇大神宮、伊太祁曽宮

DSC04370 road below


The keidai grounds of this shrine are surprisingly down from street level. After we parked the car, we could see a white torii below. Possibly, before the street was put in, the worshippers came from the valley below. The torii is pure white and stands out against the wooden building in the dark copse of trees. A stream flows below thegrounds. We could see a taki waterfall, the source of the stream. (The taki, shown below, is barely visible in the center of the upper left photo.) The chigi is male-cut, for Isotaki no kami. There is a shrine to Amaterasu inside the haiden prayer hall, and the outside sign reads Amaterasu Koutai Jinguu. A Jinguu is supposed to be grander than an ordinary jinja, and koutai means imperial. This is probablyDSC04385 view out the earlier name of the shrine. It is also called Itakisou Miya. Isotaki kami was a later addition, as we will explain.

DSC04376 taki





DSC04379 stream below






From Hidakinomiya to Itakisou Shrines

Hidakinomiya are very ancient places of meditation from the early days of Hida. How early? Possibly ten thousand years ago when Hida was being settled by the indigenous Jomon. As we saw in the story of Ryoumen Sukuna, the people of Hida had a peaceful culture in the mountains and valleys where food was abundant and life was good.

Later, this peaceful life ended when newcomers arrived from the Asian mainland and gained social and political power in Nara and Kyoto. An imperial court system was established, kanji writing replaced Woshite, and indigenous people were considered an inferior class. The court expanded its power over the archipelago, and reached its arm to take over Hida. Even though the people under Ryoumen Sukuna resisted, they were overcome by imperial forces. Hidakinomiya began to disappear and a new kami from the Kii region replaced the old ones.

Many of the Hidakinomiya were renamed Itakisou jinja. Hidaki and Itaki sound alike, don’t they? No doubt, that’s where “Itaki” came from. And a new kami was introduced called Isotaki. We note that this name is a re-arrangement of “Itaki-sou.” Isotaki no kami was brought to Hida from Kii and named as the enshrined kami in many of the Itakisou jinja, including the two Hidakinomiya that we visited. Isotaki is said to foster the growth of trees and cultivation of paddy crops. Interestingly, when we mentioned this name, people in Hida Kanayama had never heard of him. 


We found and visited two more Hidakinomiya shrines in Nyuukawa. To think that they have existed for two thousand years is awesome. Yet, it is sad that their original Nature spirituality as Hidaki places of honoring the Sun has been hidden.

2018.01.08 Links added.

2018.08.09 Revised.



Jomon Heroes: Ryoumen Sukuna and Aterui


The Kanayama Megaliths were built in the land of Hida long ago. We have been running articles on Hida and its history. We have shown you a shrine by the name of Hidakinomiya in Shiroi in the Nyuukawa district of Takayama. The name, Hida, probably came from the practice of Hidaki. Hida folklore says that the nation of Nihon originated in Hida, and that they came from Mt. Norikuradake.

The residents of Hida, who consider themselves descended from the Jomon, still speak of a local hero from long ago named Ryoumen Sukuna. He lived here, he prayed there, he went to Mt. Norikuradake, he stood up to the powerful Imperial court, and so on go the stories.

Iwakage has already posted two articles about Ryoumen Sukuna, the hero of Hida. Just who was he? Why is he admired in Hida but described as a demon in Nihon Shoki?

In researching his story, we came upon the name Aterui. Aterui was the hero of Mutsu and Oshu (now Tohoku). His story is similar to Sukuna’s.

Jomon Period

To understand, we will review what was going on at the end of the Jomon period. The Jomon were the original inhabitants of the Hinomoto Japanese archipelago, since 14,000 BCE. Far from being barbarian hunter-gatherers, these people soon developed agriculture and sedentary lives in villages. Although they spoke different languages, they were unified in speech through the efforts of Isanami and Isanagi. The Jomon had at least one form of writing, called Woshite


Motoake Woshite chart by S. Sakata

The Jomon lived peaceful lives. It is said that Jimmu Tenno unified the land in around 660 BCE.

Yayoi Period

During the Yayoi period, 300 BCE to 300 CE, there was turmoil on the Asian continent, and droves of toraijin arrived on the shores of Hinomoto from China and Korea. These toraijin became powerful in society and created a court system. Their leaders had huge mounds (kofun) built as their burial places. The Kofun period was followed by the Asuka and Nara periods.


Nintoku’s tomb in Osaka

Around this time, an Imperial Court was formed and referred to as Yamato Choutei. The leaders were the toraijin who had assumed superiority and harbored an antipathy toward the indigenous Jomon. The provinces of Hida and Oshu were resistant to give up thier Jomon culture. Yamato Choutei sought to put down all dissenters.

Ryoumen Sukuna

In the fourth century, Ryoumen Sukuna was the leader of the people of Hida. He performed the Hidaki meditation practice at various sacred sites in Hida called Hidakinomiya, including in the Nyuukawa area near Takayama, and even on Mt Norikuradake. Sukuna would not yield to outsiders. Yamato Choutei went after Ryoumen Sukuna. With their greater numbers and strength, they eventually succeeded in killing Sukuna and bringing Hida under their control. Later, Oda Nobunaga would enter Gifu and take over a castle in the present city of Gifu.

The name, Ryoumen, translates to double-faced. He is described in the Nihon Shoki as a demon with two faces and four arms. However, in Hida, Ryoumen always looked after his people, and they much admired and respected him. This double view of Ryoumen is probably the reason for his name. To the victor belong the rights of writing history; thus Ryoumen is described as a villain in the official chronicles.

Far from being a monster, Sukuna was a pious man. He is well-remembered in Hida Kanayama, especially at Chinjyusan, the little yama (san) temple-shrine where he went to pray for peace. Chinjyu means shizumeru mamoru. Thus it is a place of shizumeru becoming calm, to be at peace, and mamoru, to protect. Thus, this mountain is a place which provides solace for the soul and sets it at peace, a secluded place for rest and contemplation.


Ryoumen Sukuna by Enkuu


Aterui was the hero of Oshu, now called Tohoku, at the end of the 8th century. At that time, the people of Oshu were the indigenous ones who have been deridingly called Ezo and Emishi. You may have heard of Ezo/Emishi in the negative view of those in power.

When Yamato Choutei in 724 established the kokufu government office at Tagajo in Michinoku, they were ready to control the Ezo with military power. Aterui formed a coalition of the Ezo tribes to protect their homeland and their way of life. That way of life was to respect the kami of nature and ancestors. Their seasonal foods consisted of salmon, deer, and rice cultivation. In contrast, Yamato had paddy rice agriculture, metalware, burial mounds. The Ezo resisted the domination of Yamato. They wanted to maintain their identity and independence.

Yamato Choutei went after the rebels. Emperor Kanmu sent the famous Sakanoue Tamuramaro with a large troop after Aterui’s small band. Aterui’s stronghold was in Iwate, and they resisted. Finally, in 802, Aterui was captured and beheaded even though Sakanoue protested that he be spared to help govern the land. The area received the name, Hitokabe, human neck. There is a river by the same name. And his son, named Hitokabemaru, also resisted and was slain. Later, there was a castle in Esashi, Iwate, called Hitokabe-jo, Hitokabe Castle. Now on the hill, grass grows over the remains of the castle.




In most of the literature we have seen about the transition from Jomon to Yayoi to Nara periods, scholars and other “authorities” claim that the transition was peaceful. Having learned of these two cases, one can hardly say that the transition was peaceful or compassionate.

The cases of these two freedom-fighters and the suppression of the Woshite writing of the Jomon attest to this.




Hida: Roots of Nihon

Hidakaido: Sukuna and Aterui

Aterui: Great Hero of Emishi


Wosite was Deliberately Erased